**TRIANGLE_OBJECT_COPY**

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**TRIANGLE_OBJECT**

image_link: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle_image.png

The C++ program featured in this tutorial web page implements a custom data type (i.e. **class**) named **TRIANGLE**. Each TRIANGLE type variable (i.e. TRIANGLE type **object**) represents exactly three unique Cartesian plane coordinate pairs (and each one of those coordinate pairs is represented by a unique POINT type object).

*To view hidden text inside of the preformatted text boxes below, scroll horizontally.*

class : object :: data_type : variable.

Object Oriented Programming Terminology: The POINT class definition is included in the TRIANGLE class definition through **composition** (i.e. containing data members whose data type is some other class) rather than through inheritance (i.e. inheriting the **protected** and **public** members of some parent class)

public -> accessible to any program scope. protected -> accessible only to child classes and to clone classes. private -> accessible only to clone classes.

The data attributes of a TRIANGLE object are three POINT type objects named A, B, and C (and the coordinate pair which **A** represents is not the same coordinate pair which either B or C represents (and the coordinate pair which **B** represents is not the same coordinate pair which either A or C represents (and the coordinate pair which **C** represents is not the same coordinate pair which either A or B represents))).

**Software Application Files**

C++ header file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/point.h

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/point.cpp

C++ header file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle.h

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle.cpp

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle_driver.cpp

plain-text file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle_driver_output.txt

**Program Compilation & Execution**

STEP_0: Copy and paste each of the following C++ code files into a new text editor document and save each document as its respective file name:

point.h

point.cpp

triangle.h

triangle.cpp

triangle_driver.cpp

STEP_1: Open a Unix command line terminal application and set the current directory to wherever the C++ is located on the local machine (e.g. Desktop).

cd Desktop

STEP_2: Compile the C++ file into machine-executable instructions (i.e. object file) and then into an executable piece of software named **app** using the following command:

g++ triangle_driver.cpp triangle.cpp point.cpp -o app

STEP_3: If the program compilation command does not work, then use the following command to install the C++ compiler:

sudo apt install build-essential

STEP_4: After running the **g++** command, run the executable file using the following command:

./app

STEP_5: Observe program results on the command line terminal and in the output file.

**POINT Class Declaration**

C++ header file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/point.h

*When copy-pasting the source code from the preformatted text box below into a text editor document, remove the spaces between the angle brackets and the library names in the preprocessing directives code block.*

/** * file: point.h * type: C++ (header file) * author: Karlina Ray Beringer * date: 30_JULY_2022 * license: PUBLIC_DOMAIN */ // If point.h has not already been linked to a source file (.cpp), then link this header file to the source file(s) which include this header file. #ifndef POINT_H #define POINT_H #include < iostream > // Include the library which defines command line input and output operations. #include < fstream > // Include the library which defines file input and output operations. #include < cmath > // Include the library which defines the square root function, trigonometric functions, and the floor function (i.e. the native C++ function which rounds a number down to its nearest integer). #include < string > // Include the library which defines sequences of text characters as string type variables. #define MINIMUM_X -999 // Define the constant MINIMUM_X to represent the value -999. #define MINIMUM_Y -999 // Define the constant MINIMUM_Y to represent the value -999. #define MAXIMUM_X 999 // Define the constant MAXIMUM_X to represent the value 999. #define MAXIMUM_Y 999 // Define the constant MAXIMUM_X to represent the value 999. #define PI 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399 // Define the constant PI to represent the approximate value of a circle's circumference divided by that circle's diameter. /** * Define a class which is used to instantiate POINT type software objects. * * (object : class :: variable : data_type). * * A POINT object is a specific data model of a two-dimensional point. * * X stores one integer value at a time which is no smaller than MINIMUM_X and which is no larger than MAXIMUM_X. * Y stores one integer value at a time which is no smaller than MINIMUM_Y and which is no larger than MAXIMUM_Y. * * X represents a specific whole number position along the x-axis (i.e. horizontal dimension) of a two-dimensional Cartesian grid. * Y represents a specific whole number position along the y-axis (i.e. vertical dimension) of the same two-dimensional Cartesian grid. */ class POINT { private: int X, Y; // data attributes public: POINT(); // default constructor POINT(int X, int Y); // normal constructor POINT(const POINT & point); // copy constructor int get_X(); // getter method int get_Y(); // getter method bool set_X(int X); // setter method bool set_Y(int Y); // setter method double get_distance_from(POINT & point); // getter method double get_slope_of_line_to(POINT & point); // getter method void print(std::ostream & output = std::cout); // descriptor method friend std::ostream & operator << (std::ostream & output, POINT & point); // descriptor method ~POINT(); // destructor }; // end of header file #endif

**POINT Class Definition**

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/point.cpp

/** * file: point.cpp * type: C++ (source file) * date: 31_JULY_2022 * author: Karlina Ray Beringer * license: PUBLIC_DOMAIN */ #include "point.h" // Include the C++ header file which contains preprocessing directives, variable declarations, and function prototypes for the POINT class. /** * The default constructor method of the POINT class instantiates POINT type objects whose X value is set to 0 and whose Y value is set to 0. * * The default constructor method of the POINT class is invoked when a POINT type variable is declared as follows: * * // variable declaration one * POINT point_0; * * // variable declaration two * POINT point_1 = POINT(); */ POINT::POINT() { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the POINT type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; X = 0; Y = 0; } /** * The normal constructor method of the POINT class instantiates POINT type objects * whose X value is set to the leftmost function input value (if that input value is in range) and * whose Y value is set to the rightmost function input value (if that input value is in range). * * If an input value is out of range, then set the corresponding int-type property of this to 0. * * (The keyword this refers to the POINT object which is returned by this function). * * This normal constructor method of the POINT class is invoked when a POINT type variable is declared as follows: * * // non-default POINT definition example one * POINT point_2 = POINT(-55,84); * * // non-default POINT definition example two * POINT point_3 = POINT(3,-4); */ POINT::POINT(int X, int Y) { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the POINT type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; this -> X = ((X < MINIMUM_X) || (X > MAXIMUM_X)) ? 0 : X; // Set the X property of the POINT instance being created to 0 if the function input X value is out of range. this -> Y = ((Y < MINIMUM_Y) || (Y > MAXIMUM_Y)) ? 0 : Y; // Set the Y property of the POINT instance being created to 0 if the function input Y value is out of range. } /** * The copy constructor method of the POINT class instantiates POINT type objects * whose X value is set to the X value of the input POINT object * and whose Y value is set to the Y value of the input POINT object. * * (Note that the input POINT object named point is the predecessor to the object returned by this function). * * (The keyword this refers to the POINT object which is returned by this function (i.e. the successor to point)). * * The memory address of the predecessor POINT object is passed into the function as the variable named point. * * This copy constructor method of the POINT class is invoked when a POINT type variable is declared as follows: * * // copy POINT definition example one * POINT point_4 = POINT(point_3); * * // copy POINT definition example two * POINT point_5 = POINT(point_4); */ POINT::POINT(const POINT & point) { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the POINT type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; X = point.X; Y = point.Y; } /** * The getter method of the POINT class returns the value of the caller POINT object's X property. * * X is an int type variable which stores exactly one integer value at a time which is no smaller than MINIMUM_X and which is no larger than MAXIMUM_X. */ int POINT::get_X() { return X; } /** * The getter method of the POINT class returns the value of the caller POINT object's Y property. * * Y is an int type variable which stores exactly one integer value at a time which is no smaller than MINIMUM_Y and which is no larger than MAXIMUM_Y. */ int POINT::get_Y() { return Y; } /** * The setter method of the POINT class sets the POINT object's X property to the passed in value if that passed in value is in range. * * If the input value is in range, then return true. Otherwise, do not change the caller POINT object's X value and return false. */ bool POINT::set_X(int X) { if ((X >= MINIMUM_X) && (X <= MAXIMUM_X)) { this -> X = X; return true; } return false; } /** * The setter method of the POINT class sets the POINT object's Y property to the passed in value if that passed in value is in range. * * If the input value is in range, then return true. Otherwise, do not change the caller POINT object's Y value and return false. */ bool POINT::set_Y(int Y) { if ((Y >= MINIMUM_Y) && (Y <= MAXIMUM_Y)) { this -> Y = Y; return true; } return false; } /** * The getter method of the POINT class returns the nonzero length of the shortest path * between the planar point represented by the the caller POINT object (i.e. this) * and the planar point represented by the input POINT instance (i.e. point). * * Use the Pythagorean Theorem to compute the length of a right triangle's hypotenuse * (where the end points of that hypotenuse are represented by this and point). * * A hypotenuse is the only side of a right triangle which does not form a right angle * with any other side of that triangle. * * A hypotenuse is the longest side of a triangle (and a triangle is a three-sided polygon * in which three unique line segments connect three unique points). * * // c is the length of a right triangle's hypotenuse. * // a is the length of that right triangle's horizontal side. * // b is the length of that triangle's vertical side. * (c * c) := (a * a) + (b * b). * * // sqrt is a native C++ function defined in the cmath library. * c := square_root( (a * a) + (b * b)). */ double POINT::get_distance_from(POINT & point) { int horizontal_difference = 0.0, vertical_difference = 0.0; horizontal_difference = X - point.X; vertical_difference = Y - point.Y; return sqrt((horizontal_difference * horizontal_difference) + (vertical_difference * vertical_difference)); } /** * The getter method of the POINT class returns the slope of the line which intersects * the planar point represented by the caller POINT instance (i.e. this) * and the planar point represented by the input POINT instance (i.e. point). * * // y := f(x), * // b := f(0), * // f is a function whose input is an x-axis position and whose output is a y-axis position. * y := mx + b. * * // m is a constant which represents the rate at which y changes as x changes. * // y is the output to linear function f. * // b is a constant. * m := (y - b) / x. * * // m represents the difference of the y-values divided by the difference of the x-values * m := (point_1.y_coordinate - point_0.y_coordinate) / (point_1.x_coordinate - point_0.x_coordinate). */ double POINT::get_slope_of_line_to(POINT & point) { double vertical_difference = 0.0, horizontal_difference = 0.0, result = 0.0; vertical_difference = point.Y - Y; horizontal_difference = point.X - X; result = vertical_difference / horizontal_difference; if (result == -0) result = 0; // Signed zeros sometimes occur inside of C++ program runtime instances. return result; } /** * The print method of the POINT class prints a description of the caller POINT object to the output stream. * * Note that the default value of the function input parameter is the standard command line output stream (std::cout). * The default parameter is defined in the POINT class header file (i.e. point.h). */ void POINT::print(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nthis := " << this << ". // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object."; output << "\n&X = " << &X << ". // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named X."; output << "\n&Y = " << &Y << ". // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named Y."; output << "\nsizeof(int) = " << sizeof(int) << ". // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte."; output << "\nsizeof(POINT) = " << sizeof(POINT) << ". // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte."; output << "\nX := " << X << ". // X stores an int-type value which represents the horizontal position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid."; output << "\nY := " << Y << ". // Y stores an int-type value which represents the vertical position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; } /** * The friend function is an alternative to the print method. * The friend function overloads the ostream operator (<<). * * (Overloading an operator is assigning a different function to a native operator other than the function which that operator is used to represent by default). * * Note that the default value of the leftmost function input parameter is the standard command line output stream (std::cout). * The default parameter is defined in the POINT class header file (i.e. point.h). * * The friend function is not a member of the POINT class, but the friend function has access to the private and protected members * of the POINT class and not just the public members of the POINT class. * * The friend keyword only prefaces the function prototype for this function (which is declared in the header file named point.h). * The friend keyword does not preface the definition for this function (which is defined immediately below this comment). */ std::ostream & operator << (std::ostream & output, POINT & point) { point.print(output); return output; } /** * The destructor method of the POINT class de-allocates memory which was used to instantiate the POINT object which is calling this function. * * The destructor method of the POINT class is implicitly invoked as soon as the program scope in which the caller POINT object was instantiated terminates. * In other words, no C++ command is needed to call this function. The destructor is called automatically by the event of the caller object's scope terminating. */ POINT::~POINT() { std::cout << "\n\nDeleting the POINT type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; }

**TRIANGLE Class Declaration**

C++ header file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle.h

/** * file: triangle.h * type: C++ (header file) * author: Karlina Ray Beringer * date: 01_AUGUST_2022 * license: PUBLIC_DOMAIN */ // If TRIANGLE.h has not already been linked to a source file (.cpp), then link this header file to the source file(s) which include this header file. #ifndef TRIANGLE_H #define TRIANGLE_H // Include the C++ header file which contains preprocessing directives, variable declarations, and function prototypes for the POINT class. #include "point.h" /** * Define a class which is used to instantiate TRIANGLE type software objects. * * (object : class :: variable : data_type). * * A TRIANGLE object is a specific data model of three unique two-dimensional points occurring within the same Cartesian plane. * * A represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which B represents. * * A represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which C represents. * * B represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which A represents. * * B represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which C represents. * * C represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which A represents. * * C represents one POINT instance whose coordinate pair is not the same coordinate pair as the coordinate pair which B represents. */ class TRIANGLE { private: POINT A, B, C; // data attributes bool points_represent_unique_coordinate_pairs(POINT point_0, POINT point_1, POINT point_2); // helper method bool points_form_nondegenerate_triangle(POINT point_0, POINT point_1, POINT point_2); // helper method public: TRIANGLE(); // default constructor TRIANGLE(int A_x, int A_y, int B_x, int B_y, int C_x, int C_y); // normal constructor TRIANGLE(POINT A, POINT B, POINT C); // normal constructor TRIANGLE(const TRIANGLE & triangle); // copy constructor POINT get_A(); // getter method POINT get_B(); // getter method POINT get_C(); // getter method double get_side_length_AB(); // getter method double get_side_length_BC(); // getter method double get_side_length_CA(); // getter method double get_interior_angle_ABC(); // getter method double get_interior_angle_BCA(); // getter method double get_interior_angle_CAB(); // getter method double get_perimeter(); // getter method double get_area(); // getter method void print(std::ostream & output = std::cout); // descriptor method friend std::ostream & operator << (std::ostream & output, TRIANGLE & triangle); // descriptor method ~TRIANGLE(); // destructor }; // end of header file #endif

**TRIANGLE Class Definition**

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle.cpp

/** * file: triangle.cpp * type: C++ (source file) * date: 01_AUGUST_2022 * author: Karlina Ray Beringer * license: PUBLIC_DOMAIN */ #include "triangle.h" // Include the C++ header file which contains preprocessing directives, variable declarations, and function prototypes for the TRIANGLE class. /** * Determine whether or not point_0, point_1, and point_2 each represent unique coordinate pairs. * * (Assume that point_0, point_1, and point_2 each represent valid POINT instances). * * If each of the three POINT objects represent unique coordinate pairs, then return true. * * Otherwise, return false. */ bool TRIANGLE::points_represent_unique_coordinate_pairs(POINT point_0, POINT point_1, POINT point_2) { if ((point_0.get_X() == point_1.get_X()) && (point_0.get_Y() == point_1.get_Y())) { std::cout << "\n\npoint_0 and point_1 appear to represent the same coordinate pair."; std::cout << "\npoint_0 := POINT(" << point_0.get_X() << ", " << point_0.get_Y() << ")."; std::cout << "\npoint_1 := POINT(" << point_1.get_X() << ", " << point_1.get_Y() << ")."; return false; } if ((point_0.get_X() == point_2.get_X()) && (point_0.get_Y() == point_2.get_Y())) { std::cout << "\n\npoint_0 and point_2 appear to represent the same coordinate pair."; std::cout << "\npoint_0 := POINT(" << point_0.get_X() << ", " << point_0.get_Y() << ")."; std::cout << "\npoint_2 := POINT(" << point_2.get_X() << ", " << point_2.get_Y() << ")."; return false; } if ((point_1.get_X() == point_2.get_X()) && (point_1.get_Y() == point_2.get_Y())) { std::cout << "\n\npoint_1 and point_2 appear to represent the same coordinate pair."; std::cout << "\npoint_1 := POINT(" << point_1.get_X() << ", " << point_1.get_Y() << ")."; std::cout << "\npoint_2 := POINT(" << point_2.get_X() << ", " << point_2.get_Y() << ")."; return false; } if ((point_2.get_X() == point_0.get_X()) && (point_2.get_Y() == point_0.get_Y())) { std::cout << "\n\npoint_2 and point_0 appear to represent the same coordinate pair."; std::cout << "\npoint_2 := POINT(" << point_2.get_X() << ", " << point_2.get_Y() << ")."; std::cout << "\npoint_0 := POINT(" << point_0.get_X() << ", " << point_0.get_Y() << ")."; return false; } return true; } /** * Determine whether or not point_0, point_1, and point_2 collectively form a non-degenerate triangle. * * (Assume that point_0, point_1, and point_2 each represent valid POINT instances). * * A non-degenerate triangle is a triangle whose area is some positive real number quantity. * * A degenerate triangle is a triangle whose area is zero (due to the fact that one line intersects each of the three points). * * If each of the three POINT objects represent a non-degenerate triangle, then return true. * * Otherwise, return false. */ bool TRIANGLE::points_form_nondegenerate_triangle(POINT point_0, POINT point_1, POINT point_2) { if (!points_represent_unique_coordinate_pairs(point_0, point_1, point_2)) { std::cout << "\n\npoint_0, point_1, and point_2 do not each represent unique coordinate pairs."; std::cout << "\nHence, points_form_degenerate_triangle(point_0, point_1, point_2) is returning false."; return false; } A = point_0; B = point_1; C = point_2; if (get_area() <= 0) { std::cout << "\n\nWhen setting the POINT values of the caller TRIANGLE object to the function parameters, get_area() returned a non-positive number result."; std::cout << "\nHence, points_form_nondegenerate_triangle(POINT point_0, POINT point_1, POINT point_2) is returning false."; return false; } return true; } /** * The default constructor method of the TRIANGLE class returns a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the coordinate pair (0, 0), * whose POINT property named B represents the coordinate pair (0, 1), and * whose POINT property named C represents the coordinate pair (1, 0). */ TRIANGLE::TRIANGLE() { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the TRIANGLE type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; A = POINT(0, 0); B = POINT(0, 1); C = POINT(1, 0); } /** * The normal constructor method of the TRIANGLE class which takes six int values as its only parameters returns a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the coordinate pair (A_x, A_y), * whose POINT property named B represents the coordinate pair (B_x, B_y), and * whose POINT property named C represents the coordinate pair (C_x, C_y) * if POINT(A_x, A_y), POINT(B_x, B_y), and POINT(C_x, C_y) represent a non-degenerate triangle. * * If POINT(A_x, A_y), POINT(B_x, B_y), and POINT(C_x, C_y) do not represent a non-degenerate triangle, * then this function will return a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the coordinate pair (0, 0), * whose POINT property named B represents the coordinate pair (0, 1), and * whose POINT property named C represents the coordinate pair (1, 0). */ TRIANGLE::TRIANGLE(int A_x, int A_y, int B_x, int B_y, int C_x, int C_y) { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the TRIANGLE type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; POINT input_A = POINT(A_x, A_y); POINT input_B = POINT(B_x, B_y); POINT input_C = POINT(C_x, C_y); if (points_form_nondegenerate_triangle(input_A, input_B, input_C)) { A = input_A; B = input_B; C = input_C; } else { A = POINT(0, 0); B = POINT(0, 1); C = POINT(1, 0); } } /** * The normal constructor method of the TRIANGLE class which takes three POINT objects as its only parameters returns a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the same coordinate pair as the parameter named A, * whose POINT property named B represents the same coordinate pair as the parameter named B, and * whose POINT property named C represents the same coordinate pair as the parameter named C * if parameter A, parameter B, and parameter C represent a non-degenerate triangle. * * If parameter A, parameter B, and parameter C do not represent a non-degenerate triangle, * then this function will return a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the coordinate pair (0, 0), * whose POINT property named B represents the coordinate pair (0, 1), and * whose POINT property named C represents the coordinate pair (1, 0). */ TRIANGLE::TRIANGLE(POINT A, POINT B, POINT C) { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the TRIANGLE type object whose memory address is " << this << "."; if (points_form_nondegenerate_triangle(A, B, C)) { this -> A = A; this -> B = B; this -> C = C; } else { this -> A = POINT(0, 0); this -> B = POINT(0, 1); this -> C = POINT(1, 0); } } /** * The copy constructor method of the TRIANGLE class returns a TRIANGLE object * whose POINT property named A represents the same coordinate pair as the POINT property named A which belongs to the parameter TRIANGLE object, * whose POINT property named B represents the same coordinate pair as the POINT property named B which belongs to the parameter TRIANGLE object, and * whose POINT property named C represents the same coordinate pair as the POINT property named C which belongs to the parameter TRIANGLE object. */ TRIANGLE::TRIANGLE(const TRIANGLE & triangle) { std::cout << "\n\nCreating the TRIANGLE type object whose memory address is " << this << "."; this -> A = triangle.A; this -> B = triangle.B; this -> C = triangle.C; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_A() returns the value of the caller TRIANGLE object's A property. */ POINT TRIANGLE::get_A() { return A; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_B() returns the value of the caller TRIANGLE object's B property. */ POINT TRIANGLE::get_B() { return B; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_C() returns the value of the caller TRIANGLE object's C property. */ POINT TRIANGLE::get_C() { return C; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_side_length_AB() returns the length of the shortest path between points A and B. */ double TRIANGLE::get_side_length_AB() { return A.get_distance_from(B); } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_side_length_BC() returns the length of the shortest path between points B and C. */ double TRIANGLE::get_side_length_BC() { return B.get_distance_from(C); } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_side_length_CA() returns the length of the shortest path between points C and A. */ double TRIANGLE::get_side_length_CA() { return C.get_distance_from(A); } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_interior_angle_ABC() returns the angle measurement in degrees of the angle * formed by connecting points A, B, anc C in that order. * * This function uses Law of Cosines to compute the angle measurement of an angle given that triangle's side lengths as function inputs. */ double TRIANGLE::get_interior_angle_ABC() { double a = 0.0, b = 0.0, c = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_a = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_b = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_c = 0.0; a = get_side_length_BC(); // a represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C. b = get_side_length_CA(); // b represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are C and A. c = get_side_length_AB(); // c represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B. angle_opposite_of_a = acos(((b * b) + (c * c) - (a * a)) / (2 * b * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_b = acos(((a * a) + (c * c) - (b * b)) / (2 * a * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_c = acos(((a * a) + (b * b) - (c * c)) / (2 * a * b)) * (180 / PI); return angle_opposite_of_b; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_interior_angle_BCA() returns the angle measurement in degrees of the angle * formed by connecting points B, C, and A in that order. * * This function uses Law of Cosines to compute the angle measurement of an angle given that triangle's side lengths as function inputs. */ double TRIANGLE::get_interior_angle_BCA() { double a = 0.0, b = 0.0, c = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_a = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_b = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_c = 0.0; a = get_side_length_BC(); // a represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C. b = get_side_length_CA(); // b represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are C and A. c = get_side_length_AB(); // c represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B. angle_opposite_of_a = acos(((b * b) + (c * c) - (a * a)) / (2 * b * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_b = acos(((a * a) + (c * c) - (b * b)) / (2 * a * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_c = acos(((a * a) + (b * b) - (c * c)) / (2 * a * b)) * (180 / PI); return angle_opposite_of_c; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_interior_angle_CAB() returns the angle measurement in degrees of the angle * formed by connecting points C, A, and B in that order. * * This function uses Law of Cosines to compute the angle measurement of an angle given that triangle's side lengths as function inputs. */ double TRIANGLE::get_interior_angle_CAB() { double a = 0.0, b = 0.0, c = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_a = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_b = 0.0, angle_opposite_of_c = 0.0; a = get_side_length_BC(); // a represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C. b = get_side_length_CA(); // b represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are C and A. c = get_side_length_AB(); // c represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B. angle_opposite_of_a = acos(((b * b) + (c * c) - (a * a)) / (2 * b * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_b = acos(((a * a) + (c * c) - (b * b)) / (2 * a * c)) * (180 / PI); angle_opposite_of_c = acos(((a * a) + (b * b) - (c * c)) / (2 * a * b)) * (180 / PI); return angle_opposite_of_a; } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_perimeter() returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. */ double TRIANGLE::get_perimeter() { return get_side_length_AB() + get_side_length_BC() + get_side_length_CA(); } /** * The getter method of the TRIANGLE class named get_area() returns the quantity of the two-dimensional space bound by the shortest * paths between points A, B, and C which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. * * This function uses Heron's Formula to compute the area of any triangle given that triangle's side lengths as function inputs. */ double TRIANGLE::get_area() { double s = 0.0, a = 0.0, b = 0.0, c = 0.0; s = get_perimeter() / 2; // s is technically referred to as the semiperimter of the triangle represented by this (i.e. the TRIANGLE object which is calling this function). a = get_side_length_BC(); // a represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C. b = get_side_length_CA(); // b represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are C and A. c = get_side_length_AB(); // c represents the length of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B. return sqrt(s * (s - a) * (s - b) * (s - c)); // Use Heron's Formula to compute the area of the triangle whose points are A, B, and C. } /** * The print method of the TRIANGLE class prints a description of the caller TRIANGLE object to the output stream. * * Note that the default value of the function input parameter is the standard command line output stream (std::cout). * The default parameter is defined in the TRIANGLE class header file. */ void TRIANGLE::print(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nthis := " << this << ". // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object."; output << "\n&A = " << &A << ". // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A."; output << "\n&B = " << &B << ". // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B."; output << "\n&C = " << &C << ". // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C."; output << "\nsizeof(int) = " << sizeof(int) << ". // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte."; output << "\nsizeof(POINT) = " << sizeof(POINT) << ". // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte."; output << "\nsizeof(TRIANGLE) = " << sizeof(TRIANGLE) << ". // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte."; output << "\nA := POINT(" << A.get_X() << ", " << A.get_Y() << "). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } )"; output << "\nB := POINT(" << B.get_X() << ", " << B.get_Y() << "). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } )"; output << "\nC := POINT(" << C.get_X() << ", " << C.get_Y() << "). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } )"; output << "\nget_side_length_BC() = " << get_side_length_BC() << ". // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C."; output << "\nget_side_length_CA() = " << get_side_length_CA() << ". // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A."; output << "\nget_side_length_AB() = " << get_side_length_AB() << ". // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B."; output << "\nget_interior_angle_CAB() = " << get_interior_angle_CAB() << ". // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians."; output << "\nget_interior_angle_ABC() = " << get_interior_angle_ABC() << ". // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians."; output << "\nget_interior_angle_BCA() = " << get_interior_angle_BCA() << ". // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians."; output << "\nget_perimeter() = " << get_perimeter() << ". // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents."; output << "\nget_area() = " << get_area() << ". // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; } /** * The friend function is an alternative to the print method. * The friend function overloads the ostream operator (<<). * * Note that the default value of the leftmost function input parameter is the standard command line output stream (std::cout). * The default parameter is defined in the TRIANGLE class header file. * * The friend function is not a member of the TRIANGLE class, but the friend function has access to the private and protected members * of the TRIANGLE class and not just the public members of the TRIANGLE class. * * The friend keyword only prefaces the function prototype for this function. * The friend keyword does not preface the definition for this function. */ std::ostream & operator << (std::ostream & output, TRIANGLE & triangle) { triangle.print(output); return output; } /** * The destructor method of the TRIANGLE class de-allocates memory which was used to instantiate the TRIANGLE object which is calling this function. * The destructor method of the TRIANGLE class is invoked as soon as the program scope in which the caller TRIANGLE object was instantiated terminates. */ TRIANGLE::~TRIANGLE() { std::cout << "\n\nDeleting the TRIANGLE type object whose memory address is " << this << "..."; }

**Program Driver Source Code**

C++ source file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle_driver.cpp

/** * file: triangle_driver.cpp * type: C++ (source file) * date: 01_AUGUST_2022 * author: Karlina Ray Beringer * license: PUBLIC_DOMAIN */ #include "triangle.h" // Include the C++ header file which contains preprocessing directives, variable declarations, and function prototypes for the TRIANGLE class. /** Declare function prototypes (function declarations and not function definitions) which pertain to program unit tests. */ void unit_test_0(std::ostream & output); void unit_test_1(std::ostream & output); void unit_test_2(std::ostream & output); void unit_test_3(std::ostream & output); // Unit Test # 0: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor. void unit_test_0(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nUnit Test # 0: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle;"; output << "\ntriangle.print(output);"; TRIANGLE triangle; triangle.print(output); } // Unit Test # 1: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class overloaded ostream operator method, TRIANGLE getter methods, and TRIANGLE class destructor. void unit_test_1(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nUnit Test # 1: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class overloaded ostream operator method, TRIANGLE getter methods, and TRIANGLE class destructor."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle;"; output << "\nPOINT copy_of_point_A = triangle.get_A();"; output << "\nPOINT copy_of_point_B = triangle.get_B();"; output << "\nPOINT copy_of_point_C = triangle.get_C();"; output << "\noutput << triangle;"; TRIANGLE triangle; POINT copy_of_point_A = triangle.get_A(); POINT copy_of_point_B = triangle.get_B(); POINT copy_of_point_C = triangle.get_C(); output << triangle; output << "\n\ncopy_of_point_A.print(output);"; copy_of_point_A.print(output); output << "\n\ncopy_of_point_B.print(output);"; copy_of_point_B.print(output); output << "\n\ncopy_of_point_C.print(output);"; copy_of_point_C.print(output); output << "\ntriangle.get_side_length_AB() := " << triangle.get_side_length_AB() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_side_length_BC() := " << triangle.get_side_length_BC() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_side_length_CA() := " << triangle.get_side_length_CA() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_interior_angle_ABC() := " << triangle.get_interior_angle_ABC() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_interior_angle_BCA() := " << triangle.get_interior_angle_BCA() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_interior_angle_CAB() := " << triangle.get_interior_angle_CAB() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_perimeter() := " << triangle.get_perimeter() << "."; output << "\ntriangle.get_area() := " << triangle.get_area() << "."; } // Unit Test # 2: TRIANGLE class normal constructors, TRIANGLE class copy constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor. void unit_test_2(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nUnit Test # 2: TRIANGLE class normal constructors, TRIANGLE class copy constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE(-1, -1, 0, 5, 2, -5); // normal constructor which takes exactly 6 int-type values as its only inputs"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-3,-3), POINT(-4,-8), POINT(0,1) ); // normal constructor which takes 3 POINT-type values as its only inputs"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle_2 = TRIANGLE(triangle_0); // copy constructor which takes 1 TRIANGLE-type value as its only input"; output << "\ntriangle_0.print(output);"; output << "\ntriangle_1.print(output);"; output << "\ntriangle_2.print(output);"; TRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE(-1, -1, 0, 5, 2, -5); // normal constructor which takes exactly 6 int-type values as its only inputs TRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-3,-3), POINT(-4,-8), POINT(0,1) ); // normal constructor which takes 3 POINT-type values as its only inputs TRIANGLE triangle_2 = TRIANGLE(triangle_0); // copy constructor which takes 1 TRIANGLE-type value as its only input triangle_0.print(output); triangle_1.print(output); triangle_2.print(output); } // Unit Test # 3: degenerate triangle examples. void unit_test_3(std::ostream & output) { output << "\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nUnit Test # 3: degenerate triangle examples."; output << "\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-1,-1), POINT(0,0), POINT(1,1) ); // Because these inputs would generate a degenerate triangle, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input value."; output << "\nTRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-1,-1), POINT(0,0), POINT(-1,-1) ); // Because these inputs represent only 2 unique points instead of 3 unique points, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input values."; output << "\ntriangle_0.print(output);"; output << "\ntriangle_1.print(output);"; TRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-1,-1), POINT(0,0), POINT(1,1) ); // Because these inputs would generate a degenerate triangle, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input values. TRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE(-1, -1, 0, 0, -1, -1); // Because these inputs represent only 2 unique points instead of 3 unique points, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input values. triangle_0.print(output); triangle_1.print(output); } /** program entry point */ int main() { // Declare a file output stream object. std::ofstream file; /** * Set the number of digits of floating point numbers which are printed to the command line to 50. * Set the number of digits of floating point numbers which are printed to the file output stream to 50. */ std::cout.precision(50); file.precision(50); /** * If triangle_driver_output.txt does not already exist in the same directory as triangle_driver.cpp, * then create a new file named triangle_driver_output.txt. * * Then open the plain-text file named point_driver_output.txt * and set that file to be overwritten with program data. */ file.open("triangle_driver_output.txt"); // Print an opening message to the command line terminal. std::cout << "\n\n--------------------------------"; std::cout << "\nStart Of Program"; std::cout << "\n--------------------------------"; // Print an opening message to the file output stream. file << "--------------------------------"; file << "\nStart Of Program"; file << "\n--------------------------------"; /** * Run each one of the unit test functions for this program. * * Call each unit test function twice such that the first function call prints text results to the command line terminal * and the second function call prints text results to the output file stream. */ unit_test_0(std::cout); unit_test_0(file); unit_test_1(std::cout); unit_test_1(file); unit_test_2(std::cout); unit_test_2(file); unit_test_3(std::cout); unit_test_3(file); // Print a closing message to the command line terminal. std::cout << "\n\n--------------------------------"; std::cout << "\nEnd Of Program"; std::cout << "\n--------------------------------\n\n"; // Print a closing message to the file output stream. file << "\n\n--------------------------------"; file << "\nEnd Of Program"; file << "\n--------------------------------"; // Close the file output stream. file.close(); // Exit the program. return 0; }

**Sample Program Output**

plain-text file: https://github.com/karlinarayberinger/karlina_object_ultimate_starter_pack/blob/main/triangle_driver_output.txt

-------------------------------- Start Of Program -------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unit Test # 0: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIANGLE triangle; triangle.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a10. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd70890a10. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd70890a18. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a20. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(0, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(1, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 1.4142135623730951454746218587388284504413604736328. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 90.0000000000000142108547152020037174224853515625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 3.4142135623730949234300169337075203657150268554688. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 0.49999999999999977795539507496869191527366638183594. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unit Test # 1: TRIANGLE class default constructor, TRIANGLE class overloaded ostream operator method, TRIANGLE getter methods, and TRIANGLE class destructor. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIANGLE triangle; POINT copy_of_point_A = triangle.get_A(); POINT copy_of_point_B = triangle.get_B(); POINT copy_of_point_C = triangle.get_C(); output << triangle; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a10. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd70890a10. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd70890a18. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a20. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(0, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(1, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 1.4142135623730951454746218587388284504413604736328. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 90.0000000000000142108547152020037174224853515625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 3.4142135623730949234300169337075203657150268554688. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 0.49999999999999977795539507496869191527366638183594. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- copy_of_point_A.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd708909f8. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object. &X = 0x7ffd708909f8. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named X. &Y = 0x7ffd708909fc. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named Y. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. X := 0. // X stores an int-type value which represents the horizontal position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. Y := 0. // Y stores an int-type value which represents the vertical position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- copy_of_point_B.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a00. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object. &X = 0x7ffd70890a00. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named X. &Y = 0x7ffd70890a04. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named Y. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. X := 0. // X stores an int-type value which represents the horizontal position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. Y := 1. // Y stores an int-type value which represents the vertical position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- copy_of_point_C.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a08. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object. &X = 0x7ffd70890a08. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named X. &Y = 0x7ffd70890a0c. // The operation returns the memory address of the first memory cell of an int-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some int-type variable named Y. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. X := 1. // X stores an int-type value which represents the horizontal position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. Y := 0. // Y stores an int-type value which represents the vertical position of a two-dimensional point plotted on a Cartesian grid. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- triangle.get_side_length_AB() := 1. triangle.get_side_length_BC() := 1.4142135623730951454746218587388284504413604736328. triangle.get_side_length_CA() := 1. triangle.get_interior_angle_ABC() := 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. triangle.get_interior_angle_BCA() := 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. triangle.get_interior_angle_CAB() := 90.0000000000000142108547152020037174224853515625. triangle.get_perimeter() := 3.4142135623730949234300169337075203657150268554688. triangle.get_area() := 0.49999999999999977795539507496869191527366638183594. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unit Test # 2: TRIANGLE class normal constructors, TRIANGLE class copy constructor, TRIANGLE class print method, and TRIANGLE class destructor. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE(-1, -1, 0, 5, 2, -5); // normal constructor which takes exactly 6 int-type values as its only inputs TRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-3,-3), POINT(-4,-8), POINT(0,1) ); // normal constructor which takes 3 POINT-type values as its only inputs TRIANGLE triangle_2 = TRIANGLE(triangle_0); // copy constructor which takes 1 TRIANGLE-type value as its only input triangle_0.print(output); triangle_1.print(output); triangle_2.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd708909d0. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd708909d0. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd708909d8. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd708909e0. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(-1, -1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 5). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(2, -5). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 10.198039027185568983213670435361564159393310546875. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 5. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 6.0827625302982193389311760256532579660415649414062. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 133.667780146130354523847927339375019073486328125. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 20.772254682045858231731472187675535678863525390625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 25.559965171823815666130030876956880092620849609375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 21.280801557483787433966426760889589786529541015625. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 10.999999999999994670929481799248605966567993164062. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd708909f0. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd708909f0. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd708909f8. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a00. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(-3, -3). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(-4, -8). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(0, 1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 9.848857801796103927927106269635260105133056640625. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 5. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 5.0990195135927844916068352176807820796966552734375. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 154.440034828176152359446859918534755706787109375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 12.652556500557967211761933867819607257843017578125. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 12.90740867126584845436809700913727283477783203125. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 19.94787731538888664317710208706557750701904296875. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 5.4999999999999831246100256976205855607986450195312. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a10. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd70890a10. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd70890a18. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a20. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(-1, -1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 5). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(2, -5). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 10.198039027185568983213670435361564159393310546875. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 5. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 6.0827625302982193389311760256532579660415649414062. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 133.667780146130354523847927339375019073486328125. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 20.772254682045858231731472187675535678863525390625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 25.559965171823815666130030876956880092620849609375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 21.280801557483787433966426760889589786529541015625. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 10.999999999999994670929481799248605966567993164062. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unit Test # 3: degenerate triangle examples. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIANGLE triangle_0 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-1,-1), POINT(0,0), POINT(1,1) ); // Because these inputs would generate a degenerate triangle, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input value. TRIANGLE triangle_1 = TRIANGLE( POINT(-1,-1), POINT(0,0), POINT(-1,-1) ); // Because these inputs represent only 2 unique points instead of 3 unique points, default coordinate values are used for A, B, and C instead of the input values. triangle_0.print(output); triangle_1.print(output); -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd708909f0. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd708909f0. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd708909f8. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a00. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(0, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(1, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 1.4142135623730951454746218587388284504413604736328. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 90.0000000000000142108547152020037174224853515625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 3.4142135623730949234300169337075203657150268554688. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 0.49999999999999977795539507496869191527366638183594. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this := 0x7ffd70890a10. // The keyword named this is a pointer to the memory address of the first cell of a TRIANGLE-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some TRIANGLE-type object. &A = 0x7ffd70890a10. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named A. &B = 0x7ffd70890a18. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named B. &C = 0x7ffd70890a20. // The operation returns the address of the first memory cell of a POINT-sized block of memory cells which are allocated to the instantiation of some POINT-type object named C. sizeof(int) = 4. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which an int-type variable occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(POINT) = 8. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a POINT-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. sizeof(TRIANGLE) = 24. // The operation returns the number of bytes of memory which a TRIANGLE-type object occupies. Each memory cell has a data capacity of 1 byte. A := POINT(0, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) B := POINT(0, 1). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) C := POINT(1, 0). // POINT( { X : (int) horizontal_coordinate }, { Y : (int) vertical_coordinate } ) get_side_length_BC() = 1.4142135623730951454746218587388284504413604736328. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point B and point C. get_side_length_CA() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point C and point A. get_side_length_AB() = 1. // The method returns the nonnegative number of Cartesian grid unit lengths which span the length of the shortest path between point A and point B. get_interior_angle_CAB() = 90.0000000000000142108547152020037174224853515625. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point A in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_ABC() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are A and B with the line segment whose endpoints are B and C at intersection point B in degrees and not in radians. get_interior_angle_BCA() = 44.9999999999999857891452847979962825775146484375. // The method returns the acute angle formed by the intersection of the line segment whose endpoints are B and C with the line segment whose endpoints are A and C at intersection point C in degrees and not in radians. get_perimeter() = 3.4142135623730949234300169337075203657150268554688. // The method returns the sum of the three side lengths which the caller TRIANGLE object represents. get_area() = 0.49999999999999977795539507496869191527366638183594. // The method returns the number of Cartesian grid unit squares which are enclosed inside of the two-dimensional region formed by the three line segments which connect points A, B, and C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------- End Of Program --------------------------------

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